Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Technical University of Denmark achieved quantum teleportation of data between two computer chips for the first time. This enabled the scientists to instantly transmit data from one chip to another, despite the fact that no physical connection existed between the chips. According to the same scientists, this breakthrough opens the door to quantum computers and the quantum internet.
Scientists have accomplished quantum teleportation!
The teleportation was enabled by a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. When two particles become so entwined that they can communicate over long distances, this phenomenon occurs. It means that changing the properties of one particle instantly changes the properties of the other. There is no theoretical distance limit with quantum entanglement. If we can successfully harness this phenomenon, it will be increasingly useful for quantum computing. On the chips, the researchers used a pair of entangled photons. The scientists then performed a quantum measurement on one photon, which caused the changes to be applied to the partner photon on the other chip.
The team programmed each chip to perform a variety of quantum entanglement demonstrations. The most important aspect was the two-chip teleportation experiment, in which the individual quantum state of a particle was transmitted across two chips following a quantum measurement.
The success rate of teleportation was 91%, and the essential functions included passing states between particles that had never directly interacted via a mediator and entangling up to four protons together. This type of teleportation transports quantum information rather than matter. Scientists could only teleport quantum bits, or “qubits,” until recently. These bits are the fundamental unit of quantum information, and they can exist in two states at the same time.
Multidimensional quantum teleportation has the potential to have a significant impact on quantum computing. “The higher the dimensions of your quantum system, the more secure you can ensure your communication is and the more information you can encode,” said Ciarán Lee of University College London. The ability to teleport qutrits, which are particles that can exist in three states at the same time, could revolutionize quantum computing and communication.