Applications, Electronics & Scientific Guide

Dedicated Short Range Communication for Vehicle Safety

The V2X technology, a networked communication technology between vehicles and their environment, can prevent collisions more effectively than today’s ADAS. Mathworks highlights the challenges developers face and supports them with simulation and analysis and testing tools.
In a collaborative communications network, V2X wireless technology provides more on-road safety in the vehicle, enhances autonomous driving, and paves the way for an intelligent city. Vehicle communication offers continuous, fast, authenticatable interactions between moving cars and is generally categorized into four use cases: vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V), vehicle-to-road infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P), and inter-vehicle communication Vehicles and the mobile network (V2N). Under the generic term V2X communication, these use cases have the potential to improve traffic flow and safety significantly.

More useful than today’s ADAS

Expectations of a significant improvement in traffic safety through the introduction of V2X technology are high. A report from the US Department of Transportation (NHTSA) at the US Department of Transportation predicts: “Expanding V2X technologies has the potential to prevent 81 percent of passenger car collisions.”

V2X technology will provide more advanced safety features than other driver assistance systems (ADAS) available today. Most of these systems use computer vision, radar or lidar technologies. The problem with such techniques is that their signals cannot penetrate vehicles and that information about off-field cars is not available.

On the other hand, V2X provides essential information about vehicles inside and outside the field of view, provided that they are within a particular communication range. Therefore, with V2X both semi-autonomous systems with driver and fully automated systems can operate much more situationally. Greater situational awareness means that vehicles can cooperate in numerous traffic scenarios and reduce the number of accidents.

V2X market with strong growth

The V2X technology for automobiles is suitable for a large potential market. According to Juniper Research, the V2X market is expected to grow to $ 3 billion by the year 2022 at an annual growth rate of 26 percent. By the year 2022 than 50 percent of the new vehicles should have the V2V hardware.

The V2X market consists of three sectors. In the Devices and Semiconductor segment, Denso, Continental, Delphi, Qualcomm and Infineon are well-established manufacturers of RF transceivers and V2X chipsets. In the mobile infrastructure dominate among the manufacturers Huawei, Nokia and Ericsson and the mobile operators AT & T, NTT and Docomo. Car manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda (Japan), GM and Ford (USA) as well as BMW, Daimler and Audi (Germany) are primarily the third segment.

Which radio technology makes the race?

There are two possible technologies for implementing V2X technology: Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Cellular V2X (C-V2X) communications. Both operate in the 5.9 GHz frequency band and must meet stringent reliability and delay requirements:

  • Communication latency: under 100 ms delay
  • Communication range: at least 300 meters
  • Supported vehicle speeds: typical speeds on highways

DSRC is an offshoot of Wi-Fi technology. The standard IEEE 802.11p specifies the communication protocols (PHY and MAC layer). Proponents of this technology include automakers such as Toyota, Honda and GM. Work on the short-distance communication started in 2009 and the following year the communication protocols were fully characterized.

Advocates argue that all aspects of DSRC standards from the application layer to the PHY layer and all security considerations have been incorporated in the last eight years of development. They are convinced that the technology is now ready for use on a large scale. DSRC also has known limitations because, among other things, it only supports V2V and V2I applications and its reliability for high vehicle densities and communication ranges is limited.

Make a compromise of two standards

C-V2X is based on 4G LTE mobile technology. It is part of the D2D communication protocol (Device-to-Device) of the Sidelink mode (Proximity server), defined by the LTE Advanced standard. This makes it possible for any device to detect every other device in its vicinity directly. Unlike DSRC, C-V2X supports vehicle use V2N and V2P applications at higher speeds (up to 250 km / h) and higher vehicle densities (thousands).

The advocates of C-V2X technology are a consortium of automotive and radio equipment manufacturers known as the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA). These include Intel, Ericsson, Nokia, Audi, BMW, Qualcomm and Denso. According to the 5GAA, the cost of developing a DSRC-based solution is far higher than that of solutions based on C-V2X. Also, the gap in technology advantages between C-V2X and DRSC will increase following the introduction of 5G mobile networks.

So far, no country has opted for one of these technologies as a necessary V2X technology. It is likely that both will be introduced and that vehicles equipped with an intelligent system can process and transmit the data from both techniques.

Cope with development challenges

Users of V2X technology include software and hardware developers, integrators and service providers, as well as testers and performance reviewers. In developing this communication technology, they have to master particular challenges in the area of visualization, prototype development and further development of models. 

First, it is about visualizing, updating, and monitoring vehicle dynamics and wireless sensor networks (position, speed, and acceleration of vehicles in the network, vehicles entering and leaving the network, strength of the RF signal on each vehicle, status of the connections between them) individual cars, other system elements). While you are on any vacation travel using a car, you can follow more safety by using this technology.

For different collision avoidance and traffic problem resolution algorithms on V2X chips, users need to develop prototypes. This includes radio modem operations for transmission and reception of basic safety messages as well as collision avoidance algorithms and traffic control messages that the vehicle processes in real time.

Finally, it is important to monitor the effects of V2X techniques on traffic as a whole and to further develop corresponding models (status of collision avoidance measures, general communication metrics such as delays and throughput, algorithms for traffic redirection and dynamics of V2X nodes for optimizing a given set of Criteria) and continuous search for more optimized techniques using huge amounts of actual field data.

Simulation and tools support analysis and testing

It is imperative to ensure that safety-critical applications and devices such as V2X function precisely as they should. Computer simulations can be used to create and extensively test a model of the system, its components, and its environment. Model-Based Design tools enable the visualization, analysis and testing of different traffic scenarios and vehicle dynamics, as well as a review of whether the V2X system provides the expected collision avoidance.

Vehicle use and urban security are changing thanks to automation radically. Intelligent transportation systems, such as autonomous vehicles, are designed to take into account the events in their environment. These situational systems can respond to the movements of other vehicles and pedestrians in real time. As more and more vehicles on the road use these types of automated driving features, including V2X, overall driving safety can increase significantly. These steps lead to the reduction of vehicle collisions in the right direction. The current developments in vehicle electronics are exciting.

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